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Full text of "History Of Ancient India"

{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\fswiss\cpg0\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f2\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f3\fswiss\cpg1252\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f4\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f5\fswiss\cpg1251\fcharset204 Arial;}{\f6\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f7\fswiss\cpg1250\fcharset238 Arial;}{\f8\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f9\fswiss\cpg1257\fcharset186 Arial;}{\f10\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f11\fswiss\cpg1254\fcharset162 Arial;}{\f12\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f13\fswiss\cpg1253\fcharset161 Arial;}{\f14\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}{\f15\fswiss\cpg1255\fcharset177 Arial;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f2\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl1978\margr4567\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn1978\margrsxn4567\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li1285\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\tx5504 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs22 ARYAN HOME: THE RIGVEDA{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw-22 27}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li47\fi0\ri7\sb227\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-6\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 as presented in the \i \}Ligveda \i0 and the Avestan and the \expndtw-1 "Indo-Germanic" tongues spoken by most European \expndtw6 nations\super 1\nosupersub ; and also on the flora and fauna known to \expndtw1 them and the likeness of their culture as inferred from \expndtw-2 the meagre data available\super 2\nosupersub . Language and common \expndtw-3 peculiarities of life are, however, no certain proofs of \expndtw10 consanguinity, for they can be adopted by one \expndtw0 community from another. Nor are the anthropological \expndtw4 researches of any particular help. They simply show \expndtw2 that there is a physical type in India, which in many \expndtw9 respects is akin to certain European races. Thus, \expndtw7 though we cannot be sure that the blood of Europe \expndtw3 runs in Indian veins, it is conceivable that the Indo-\expndtw-1 Aryans were at some stage not altogether isolated from \expndtw2 the forefathers of the Western peoples.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li79\fi0\ri0\sb148\sa0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex78\expndtw5\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 The JtJgveda}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li36\fi461\ri18\sb108\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 The earliest work, which the Aryans have left to \expndtw3 posterity, is the \i HUgveda. \i0 It is a collection of 1017 \expndtw2 hymns, supplemented by n others called \i Vdlakhilyas, \i0\expndtw-5 and is systematically arranged into 10 \i mandalas \i0 or books. \expndtw-4 The hymns represent compositions of different periods,\super 3 \nosupersub\expndtw1 and are of varying degrees of literary merit, being \expndtw3 productions of priest-poets\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'97\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0 mostly men and two or \expndtw4 three women\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'97\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0 of various families.\super 4\nosupersub  Excepting a few}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li4\fi378\ri18\sb245\sa0\sl-198\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-1\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 1\nosupersub  cf. e.g., Sanskrit \i Pitri \i0 with Zend \i Paitar, \i0 Latin \i Pater, \i0 Greek \i\expndtw3 Patir, \i0 Celt \i Athtr, \i0 Teuton \i Fadar, \i0 Tocharian \i Patar, \i0 and English \i\expndtw-4 Father; \i0 or Sanskrit \i Dvau \i0 with Latin \i Duo, \i0 Irish \i Dan, \i0 Gothic \i Twai, \i0\expndtw7 Lithuanian \i Da, \i0 and English \i Two; \i0 or Sanskrit \i Astt, \i0 Latin \i Est, \i0\expndtw4 Irish \i Is, \i0 Gothic \i 1st, \i0 and Lithuanian \i Esti.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li389\fi0\ri0\sb4\sa0\sl-198\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw6\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 2\nosupersub c\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'a3\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0  \i Cam, Hist. Ind., \i0 I, Ch. Ill, pp. 64-76.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi378\ri0\sb7\sa0\sl-198\slmult0\tx493 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 3{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub The \i l&gpeda. \i0 itself speaks of older and later \i Ris/s  \i0 and  their\line \expndtw4 compositions.   Winternitz thinks that there must be  a   gulf   of\line \expndtw1 centuries  between  the different strata of Rigvedic hymns.   Great\line \expndtw-1 care was taken to preserve its textual purity by a number of devices\line \expndtw-3 like \i Pada-patha,  Krama-patha, Anukramams, \i0 etc.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi378\ri0\sb11\sa0\sl-198\slmult0\tx493 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 4{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\expndtw3 Orthodox tradition, however, regards the hymns as  revela\-\line \expndtw8 tions to  the \i\scaps r./sis.}\par }